University: University of Alexandria

Faculty: Faculty of Arts

Department: Department of Greek and Roman Archaeology and Studies, Museum Studies Program, MA

Course Description


1. Basic Information

Course code:

Course Title: Museum Economics (marketing, fundraising)

Academic Program: Museum Studies Program, MA in Museum Studies

Course Type:          Compulsory                                                    Elective  

Hours/week: 3     theoretical:  2      practical:  2

Credit Hours: 3

2.Course Aims

This course aims to:

The development of museums has two socio-economic goals : to attract audiences and to find resources to finance its activities. The course, which examines the full range of marketing techniques, aims to clarify which marketing mechanisms can be applied to museums, taking into account the missions of the museum and the specificity of cultural products and services (and how they are consumed). It will be question of learning :

- to increase the visibility of the touristical and museal offer in order to increase and retain visitors

- To consolidate the identity of the museum/site and to communicate its unique value through graphic communication, digital marketing and brand strategy.

- to design marketing tools (activity reports, press kits, multi-site passes, e-marketing, etc.) and deviated/ related products for museum/site shops

- To develop a strategy for prospecting philanthropists and to create customer loyalty programs for donors, volunteers and philanthropists.

3.Intended Learning Outcomes

a. Knowledge and Understanding

After the course, students should be able to know:

·       Definitions of Museum marketing

·       Definitions and ways of fundraising of the museums

b.. Intellectual Skills

After the course, students should be aware of:

·       Comparing between web-sites to know the best ways for fundraising and marketing of their museums.

c. Professional Skills

·       Design an offer adapted to international audiences: product design, packaging, marketing, distribution

d. General & Transferable skills

After this course, students should be able to:

·       Manage aspects of dissemination and marketing for a museum according to the message the museum plans to convey.

4. Course Contents

Topics covered by this course include:

Attracting publics, audiences to the museum and building loyalty

- Museum marketing: the adaptation of a commercial theory, the specificities of the cultural product

- Analysis of museum marketing mix (4P : Product-Place-Price-Promotion) : adaptation of service / pricing policy / communication strategy / distribution.

- Cultural consumption / audience segmentation / positioning concept / competition.

Increase the visibility and accessibility of the tourist offer: site networks, museum networks, etc.

- Museum and website branding: graphic and visual identity, logo... 

- Museums, sites and media: communicate and make known, the press kit, the media interview

- The online site for museums and the other cultural sites.

- Digital communication, a revolution for better targeted, less costly and more effective museum marketing: digital community development, social networks 

B. Fundraising

- The marketing of derived products and museum/site shops I

- Design an offer adapted to international audiences: product design, packaging, marketing, distribution

- Marketing of derived products and museum/site shops II       

Designing an offer adapted to local and Egyptian audiences

- The museum and its corporate partners: from brand development to patronage, sponsorship, counterparts, and ethics of museum/sponsorship relations.        

- Prospecting strategy of patrons for companies and foreigners and partnership modalities: project sponsorship, patrons' circle, financial sponsorship, in kind, technical or skills sponsorship, rental of spaces, etc.

- Make individual visitors donors: towards a marketing commitment (donations and legacies, popular subscription, association of friends of museums, membership patronage...).

- A new form of sponsorship: turnkey exhibitions exported, rental works

- Present a sponsorship report, write an annual report

5. Teaching and Learning Methods

Lecturing with discussion and active participations

- collaborative work

- practical workshop 

- comparative analysis of existing systems

- presentation and class discussion

6. Teaching and Learning Methods for Students of Limited Capabilities

Activationof staff office hours.

Additional revisions of previously taught topics and difficult parts of the course.

Providing a summary of previous course aspects as well as a short introduction to each topic before discussing in class.

7. Students Assessment

a. Assessment methods

exercise : comparative analysis of the visual strategies of museum brands

> exercise : comparative analysis of museum website strategies

> exercise : comparative analysis of social network strategies in museums

> workshop: create a shared museums card /a network offer

> workshop: imagine a membership sponsorship proposal

> workshop: write a press kit

> workshop: imagine a proposal for derivative products

> examination: designing a global marketing plan for a museum/site establishment

b. Assessment schedule and weight

Assessment

week

% of total mark

comparative analysis of the visual strategies of museum brands

3

5%

comparative analysis of museum website strategies

5

5%

comparative analysis of social network strategies in museums

7

5%

create a shared museums card /a network offer

9

5%

imagine a membership sponsorship proposal

11

5%

write a press kit

12

5%

imagine a proposal for derivative products

13

5%

designing a global marketing plan for a museum/site establishment

14

5%

Final Exam

15

60%

8. List of References

a. Core readings:

- Kotler, Neil and Kotler, Philip(1998), Museum Strategy and Marketing: Designing Missions, Building Audiences, Generating Revenue and Resources.

- Frank T. Koe, ‘Small Museum, Big Plans’, Museum News, vol 70, n. 1, 1991

- P. Johnson,  B. Thomas,The Economic Impact of Museums :A Critique. Durham, Durham university, 2000

- Côté, Joanne. Marketing Plans for Museums: A Vital Managerial Tool, thèse de maîtrise, John F. Kennedy University, San Francisco, California, 1987, 334 p.

- Davey, Claire L. Marketing the Visual Arts in Public Galleries and Museums, M.A. Thesis, Museum and Gallery Administration, City University, London, September 1988, 73 p.

- Sani, Margherita. Marketing Strategies in Public and Private Museums in Great Britain, Submitted for Masters of Arts Degree, Museums and Galleries Administration, September 1990, 127 p.

- Sekers, David. The Educational Potential of the Museum Shop, Museums Journal, Vol. 76, No. 4, March 1977, pp 146-147.

-Krahel, David Henry. Why a Museum Store?, Curator, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1971, pp 200-204.

- Rush, Anita. The Role of the Museum Gift Shop: A Discussion, Museum Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, September 1983, pp 7-11.

- Scroxton, Jeremy. Food Service in Museums, Museums Journal, Vol. 87, No. 4, March 1988, pp 187- 190.

Lise Héroux et Nancy J. Church, « Marketing Strategies of Gift and Souvenir Shops in Canada and the United States », Téoros [En ligne], 33, 2 | 2014, mis en ligne le 12 janvier 2016,

b. Suggested readings:

- McNichol, Theresa (2005), « Creative Marketing Strategies in Small Museums: Up Close and Innovative », International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 239-248.

- Runyard, Sue and Ylva French (2000), The Marketing and Public Relations Handbook for Museums, Galleries and Heritage Attractions, Walnut Creek (California), AltaMira Press, p. 1-290.

- Schuler, Drue K. and Janell M. Kurtz (2002), « An Internet Opportunity for Museums”, International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 13-19.

- LiseHérouxet James Csipak, « Marketing Strategies of Museums in Quebec and Northeastern United States », Téoros [En ligne], 27-3 | 2008, mis en ligne le 07 avril 2010, consulté le 18 mars 2018. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/teoros/79

- Ruth Rentschler, Audrey Gilmore (2002), « Museums: Discovering Services Marketing », International Journal of Arts Management, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 62-73.

- Jean-Michel TOBELEM, Le nouvel âge des musées : Les institutions culturelles au défi de la gestion, Paris, 2010.

- Publics et Musées, n°11-12, 1997. Marketing et musées (sous la direction de Jean-Michel Tobelem)

- Yorke M. Rowan, UziBaram, Marketing Heritage: Archaeology and the Consumption of the Past, Rowman Altamira, 2004.

c. Periodicals, websites, etc.

- Jean-Michel Tobelem, « The Marketing approach in museums », Museum management and curatorship, 1997, 16, 4 , p. 337-354

- http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/m/marketing-the-v-and-a/

- http://www.e-marketing.fr/Thematique/social-media-1096/Tribune/Les-logos-musees-entre-marketing-mediation-250891.htm

- C. Boyer, C. Koopmans, S. van der Werff,  The effects of the Dutch museum pass on museum visits and museum revenues, 2014, Amsterdam: SEO EconomischOnderzoek: http://dare.uva.nl/search?metis.record.id=467768

- A Guide to Best Practices for Archaeological Tourism :

https://www.archaeological.org/tourism_guidelines

- Celine Lai, “Archaeological museums and tourism in China: a case study of the Sanxingdui Museum”, Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol. 30, 2015, Pages 75-93.

- Patricia Pitaluga, Joseph Miller, “Cultural Marketing and Archaeology: The Case of Brazil”, Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing,   2001, vol. 8, Pages 63-74.

- http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/museums/unescoicom-museum-studies-training-package/running-a-museum-a-practical-handbook/

9. Course Matrix for Achievement of Intended Learning Outcomes

Topic

week

Knowledge & Understanding

Intellectual Skills

Professional Skills

General & Transferable Skills

Attracting publics:  Museum marketing

1

x

 

 

x

Attracting publics: Marketing Mix

2

x

 

 

x

Attracting publics:  Cultural consumption

3

x

 

 

x

Attracting publics:  Museum and website branding

4

x

 

 

x

Attracting publics:   Museums and media

5

x

 

x

xx

Attracting publics:  Museums and media

6

 

x

x

x

Attracting publics :  an online site

7

 

x

x

x

Attracting publics: digital communication

8

 

x

x

x

Fundraising: The marketing of derived products

9

x

x

 

x

Fundraising:  The marketing of derived products

10

 

 

x

x

Fundraising:  The museum and its corporate partners

11

 

x

x

x

Fundraising:  Prospecting strategy of patrons

12

 

x

x

x

Fundraising:  Make individual visitors donors

13

x

x

x

 

Fundraising:  A new form of sponsorship/sponsorship report.

14

 

x

x

x

Final Exam

15