University: University of Alexandria

Faculty: Faculty of Arts

Department: Department of Greek and Roman Archaeology and Studies, Museum Studies Program, Professional Diploma

Course Description

 

1. Basic Information

Course code:

Course Title: Site Management

Academic Program: Museum Studies Program, Professional Diploma in Museum Studies

Course Type:          Compulsory                                                   Elective   

Hours/week: 2     theoretical:  1     practical:  2

Credit Hours: 2

2. Course Aims

This course aims to:

Provide an introduction to the coordination and integration of conserving, displaying, and interpreting archaeological sites in order to ensure the protection and long-term survival of sites in accordance with international conventions and charters.  The course also emphasizes the role of local communities and various stake holders in the interpretation and presentation of sites.

The course provides an overview of types of heritage (archaeological heritage as well as built and living heritage) and the factors affecting heritage resources. The importance of managing heritage sites and means of protecting heritage sites, spectrum of values of Sites.

Cultural Heritage Sites in Egypt include a wide range of types ranging from prehistoric rock art sites to pyramid fields.  Although different sites require different management strategies depending on local circumstances, all sites must be managed. At present, only certain sites, mostly those that attract tourists are managed. Other sites, outside the tourist itineraries, as well as sites that do not consist of spectacular buildings or artistic elements, for example, prehistoric settlements, Pharaonic mining sites, and historical desert routes are not managed.  Management of cultural heritage sites in Egypt thus depends on the tourist value of the site and thereby its economic value.  Although many of these sites have high architectural, artistic, and historical value, other neglected sites may be extremely valuable because of their social, scientific, technical, value ethnographic significance. Mining sites for example are very important on a global basis for understanding the early history of mining and metallurgy. Historical sea ports, e.g., on the red Sea coast, also neglected are vitally important for understanding the cultural links between Egypt and its neighbours. The same applies for desert routes used for pilgrimage, trade, and military campaigns.

3. Intended Learning Outcomes

a. Knowledge and Understanding

In-depth knowledge how archaeological and cultural sites can be deployed to best serve interpretation of the cultural significance of sites, increase number of visitors, increase revenues per visit, make visits informative and enjoyable, conserve site contents and environment, work with local communities.

b. Intellectual Skills

1. Understand foundational areas

The course encourages and necessitates critical thinking of how archaeological sites are managed.  It will promote creative thinking about how best to display and interpret sites.It will promote how to build connections between different fields of knowledge, adapt theoretical knowledge to practical issues, connect the past to the present, develop an open attitude and sensitivity to cultural differences among visitors

c. Professional Skills

Students in this course will developed professional skills of  searching and screening relevant literature, critical reading, writing summaries of readings and lectures, making presentations, using PowerPoint presentations, group discussion, debate, analysis of data, making reasoned conclusions,  collaboration with other students and team work, professional ethics, professional methodology.

d. General & Transferable skills

The course will instill the following transferable and general skills:

scientific methodology

Learning new and challenging texts and references

Organized and purposeful writing

Thinking for a purpose

Thinking from data through analysis to conclusions.

Understanding connections between observations and theoretical models and schemata.

Oral presentations

Writing report

Public Speaking

Conducting discussion, posing questions and answering queries.

4. Course Contents

Topics covered by this course include:

Introduction & Course Overview

Classification of Heritage, Types of Sites & Factorsaffecting Heritage, Egypt’s world heritage sites, tentative list.

Aims of Archaeological Site Management and theCharter for the Protection and Management ofArchaeological Heritage.

Establishing the Values of the Sites

OutstandingUniversal Value, Selection Criteria, Value CenteredConservation & the Living Heritage Approach, Criteria for selection

Elements for master planning, Compilation of data, maps, etc.. Formation of the management team, tasks. Settings goals, short and long terms, facilities,The World Heritage Convention and the Buffer Zone.Visits to Pyramids of Giza Site (Memphis and its Necropolis Masterplan). Examination of KV Site Managementheritage management plans.

Documentation of Sites (Photographic,Architectural) and Condition Surveys.

Risk Assessment for Archaeological Sites in Egypt, Abu Rawash Case study.

World  Heritage Sites in Danger

On site conservation & community participation

(Site Visit to the Azhar Park and the Darb al-Ahmar Revitalization Project).Wind Flow Modeling and Simulation over the Giza Plateau Cultural Heritage Site in Egypt

Visitor management and quality

Community participation and mobilization of heritage for community economic and social Development, Dahshour Case study.

On site Storage, Display and interpretation, Site Museums, Saqqara Case study

Awareness Raising; Heritage and Education throughCase Studies, visitor center- Serabit el Khadem Sinai Project, Wikalet el Rab, Moez street.

5. Teaching and Learning Methods

·        The Teaching and learning methods will consist of a mix of learner-centered methods, teacher-based methods and interactive methods. Those will be manifested in :

·        1. Lectures varying from oral presentation with or without PowerPoint presentations. The lecture will be based on prior assigned readings and writing a summary of the highlights of the lecture.

·        2. Discussions involving prior readings, writing a report that will be disseminated to the class mates, discussion in class will follow a model of discussion leader, moderator, and PowerPoint presentations.

·        3. Demonstrations will be undertaken through fieldtrip to observe and discuss topics raised in class in real life situations.

·        4. Role playing will be used to deepen understanding of real-life situations as between policymakers, local communities, NGO, heritage professionals, and economists.

·        5. Buzz groups to discuss and debate critical issues for presentation in class.

·        6.Seminars

·        7. Field trips and site visits

8. Attending special events, lectures, exhibitions and festivals.

6. Teaching and Learning Methods for Students of Limited Capabilities

Special attention will be given to student if limited capabilities through a battery of steps including seating, facilitating interaction with students and tutors, mentoring, setting goals, giving extensions, providing extra-curricular help, assistance with reading and writing, positive support and encouragement, and motivation.

7.  Students Assessment

a. Assessment methods

Participation in discussions and class activities, Exercises, quizzes, presentations involving readings, writing a synopsis, writing a critical review of readings, oral presentation in class, research team assignment and report writing

b. Assessment schedule and weight

Assessment

week

% of total mark

Exercises and quizzes

4

10%

Presentation

6

10%

Assignment

8

20%

 

 

 

Final Exam

15

60%

8. List of References

a. Core readings:

-AbdelMaksoud, K.M., Al-Metwaly, W.M., Ruban, D.A. and Yashalova, N.N., 2018. Geological heritage under strong urbanization pressure: El-Mokattam and Abu Roash as examples from Cairo, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences.

-Adams, J.L., 2010. Interrogating the equity principle: The rhetoric and reality of management planning for sustainable archaeological heritage tourism. Journal of Heritage Tourism5(2), pp.103-123.

-Alazaizeh, M.M., Hallo, J.C., Backman, S.J., Norman, W.C. and Vogel, M.A., 2016. Value orientations and heritage tourism management at Petra Archaeological Park, Jordan. Tourism Management57, pp.149-158.

-Apollonio, F.I., Gaiani, M. And Benedetti, B., 2012. 3D reality-based iscussi models for the management of archaeological sites using 3D Gis: a framework starting from the case study of the Pompeii Archaeological area. Journal of archaeological Science39(5), pp.1271-1287.

-Aubry, M.P., Dupuis, C., Berggren, W.A., Ghaly, H., Ward, D., King, C., Knox, R.W.O.B., Ouda, K. and Youssef, M., 2016. The role of geoarchaeology in the preservation and management of the Theban Necropolis, West Bank, Egypt. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society61(2), pp.134-147.

-Balletti, C., Guerra, F., Scocca, V. And Gottardi, C., 2015. 3D integrated methodologies for the documentation and the virtual reconstruction of an archaeological site. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences40(5), p.215.

-Bardají, T., Martínez-Graña, A., Sánchez-Moral, S., Pethen, H., García-González, D., Cuezva, S., Cañaveras, J.C. and Jiménez-Higueras, A., 2017. Geomorphology of Dra Abu el-Naga (Egypt): The basis of the funerary sacred landscape. Journal of African Earth Sciences131, pp.233-250.

-Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (ICAHM Charter, 1990)

-Cleere, H., 2010. Management plans for archaeological sites: a world heritage template. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites12(1), pp.4-12.

Comer, D.C., 2012. Petra as a Bellwether Archaeological Site on the World Heritage List. In Tourism and Archaeological Heritage Management at Petra (pp. 3-28). Springer, New York, NY.

Cleere Henry 2013. Management Plans for Archaeological Sites: A World-Feilden, B.M. and Jokilehto, J., 2007. Management guidelines for World Cultural Heritage sites [Original title and text in Georgian].

-Fuentes, J.M., 2010. Methodological bases for documenting and reusing vernacular farm architecture. Journal of Cultural Heritage11(2), pp.119-129.

-Fushiya, T., 2010. Archaeological site management and local involvement: a case study from Abu Rawash, Egypt. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites12(4), pp.324-355.

-Guidi, G., Russo, M. and Angheleddu, D., 2014. 3D survey and virtual reconstruction of archeological sites. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage1(2), pp.55-69.

-Karakhanyan, A., Avagyan, A. and Sourouzian, H., 2010. Archaeoseismological studies at the temple of Amenhotep III, Luxor, Egypt. Ancient Earthquakes471, p.199.

-Kobyliński, Z., Criteria and Methods of assessing Values of iscussioncal heritage: Current state of iscussion. HERITAGE, p.81.

-Labadi, S., 2013. UNESCO, cultural heritage, and outstanding universal value: Value-based analyses of the World Heritage and Intangible Cultural Heritage Conventions. Rowman & Littlefield.

-Martín-Ruiz, D., Castellanos-Verdugo, M. and de los Ángeles Oviedo-García, M., 2010. A visitors’ evaluation index for a visit to an archaeological site. Tourism Management31(5), pp.590-596.

-Maksoud, K.M.A. and Hussien, M.G., 2017. Geotourism in Egypt and its economic and culture impact. Arabian Journal of Earth Sciences3(1), pp.1-13.

-Matero, F., Fong, K.L., Bono, E.D., Goodman, M., Kopelson, E., McVey, L., Sloop, J. and Turton, C., 1998. Archaeological site conservation and management an appraisal of recent trends. Conservation and management of archaeological sites2(3), pp.129-142.

-Moeller, N., 2016. The Archaeology of Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: From the Predynastic Period to the End of the Middle Kingdom. Cambridge University Press.

-OGISO, Y., SUMI, T., KANTOUSH, S., SABER, M. and ABDEL-FATTAH, M., 2017. Risk Assessment of Flash Floods in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt.

-Parcak, S.H., Remote sensing in the Valley of the Kings and its hinterland Sarah H. Parcak and Gregory D. Mumford 2 (University of Alabama at Birmingham).

-Pereira Roders, A. and Van Oers, R., 2011. World Heritage cities management. Facilities29(7/8), pp.276-285.

Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. eds., 2013. Archaeology: the key concepts. Routledge. Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. eds., 2013. Archaeology: the key concepts. Routledge.Rinaudo, F., Chiabrando, F., Lingua, A.M. and Spanò, A.T., 2012..

b.Suggested readings:

 Ababneh, A., Darabseh, F. and White, R., 2014. Assessment of Visitor Management at the Archaeological Site of Umm Qais: Condition and Problems. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites16(4), pp.322-340.

Alazaizeh, M.M., Hallo, J.C., Backman, S.J., Norman, W.C. and Vogel, M.A., 2016. Value orientations and heritage tourism management at Petra Archaeological Park, Jordan. Tourism Management57, pp.149-158.

Al-Ruzouq R, Abu Dabous S. Archaeological Site Information Modelling and Management Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry and GIS. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites. 2017 Jul 3;19(3):156-72.

Attiyah, H., 1993a, July. Roots of organization and management problems in Arab countries: cultural or otherwise? In A Paper Presented at the First Arab Management Conference, Bradford Management Center, Bradford, July (pp. 6-8).

Ballantyne, R., 1998. Problems and prospects for heritage and environmental interpretation in the new millennium: An introduction.

Cleere, H. ed., 1984. Approaches to the archaeological heritage: a comparative study of world cultural resource management systems. Cambridge University Press.

Cultnat, 2001. Strategic Approach to Egypt’s Cultural Heritage, Final Report. Cairo, Egypt.

Fagan, B., 2004. The Rape of the Nile: Tomb Robbers, Tourists, and Archaeologists in Egypt, Revised and Updated. Basic Books

Glock, A., 1994. Archaeology as cultural survival: the future of the Palestinian past. Journal of Palestine Studies23(3), pp.70-84.

Hassan, F. A. 1997. The cultural heritage of Egypt: a world legacy. In African Cultural Heritage and the World Heritage Convention, B. Hirsch, L. Lévi-Strauss, and Saouma-Forero, ed. UNESCO Paris, pp. 86-90.

Hassan, F. A. 1999a. African archaeology: the call of the future. African Affairs. 98:393-406.

Sen, S. (2003) ‘Essential Dilemma in the Liberal Understanding of Heritage: On Reaction to the Recent Looting and Destruction of Museums in Iraq’,  Meghbarta (consulted December 2004). http://www.meghbarta.org/2003/june/ourworld.html#sen

UNESCO 1996. Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, WHC/2/Revised February 1996. Paris.

US/ICOMOS 1988. Charter for the Protection and Management of Archaeological Heritage,  Washington, D.C.

UNESCO 2006. Conserving cultural and biological diversity : The role of sacred natural

c. Periodicals, websites, etc.

Bibliography (a full bibliography can be found following these links)

http://www.international.icomos.org/centre_documentation/bib/Management_plans_bibliography.pdf

http://www.international.icomos.org/centre_documentation/bib/archaeology.pdf

http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/pdf_publications/archaeology_bib.pdf

Useful links:

http://www.icomos.org/icahm/

http://www.icomos.org

http://whc.unesco.org/

http://archaeology.about.com/

http://www.getty.edu/conservation/

http://www.iccrom.org/

http://www.akdn.org/

http://thebanmappingproject.com/

http://www.arce.org/

http://www.cultnat.org/

9. Course Matrix for Achievement of Intended Learning Outcomes

Topic

week

Knowledge & Understanding

Intellectual Skills

Professional Skills

General & Transferable Skills

Introduction & Course Overview.

Classification of Heritage, Types of Sites & Factors affecting Heritage, Egypt’s world heritage sites, tentative list.

1

x

x

x

x

Aims of Archaeological Site Management and The Charter for the Protection and Management of Archaeological Heritage.

2

x

x

x

x

Establishing the Values of the Sites

Outstanding Universal Value, Selection Criteria, Value Centered Conservation & the Living Heritage Approach, Criteria for selection

3

x

x

x

x

Exercises and quizzes

4

 

 

 

 

Elements for master planning, Compilation of data, maps , etc.. Formation of the management team, tasks.. Settings goals, short and long terms , facilities, The World Heritage Convention and the Buffer Zone Visits to Pyramids of Giza Site (Memphis and its Necropolis Masterplan)., KV Site Management heritage management plans :prehistoric sites of 'Ubeidiya and Sha'ar hagolan Case study Paliambela Kolindros Management Plan Case study Master Plan for the Conservation of the Cultural Heritage in the Kathmandu Valley Case study

5

x

x

x

x

Presentations

6

 

 

 

 

-Documentation of Sites (Photographic, Architectural) and Condition Surveys.

Risk Assessment for Archaeological Sites in Egypt, Abu Rowash Case study.

7

x

x

x

x

Assignment

8

 

 

 

 

-World  Heritage Sites in Danger

9

x

x

x

x

-On site conservation & community participation

(Site Visit to the Azhar Park and the Darb al-Ahmar Revitalization Project). Wind Flow Modeling and Simulation over the Giza Plateau Cultural Heritage Site in Egypt

10

x

x

x

x

-Visitor management and quality

11

x

x

x

x

-Community participation  and mobilization of heritage for community economic and social Development,

12

x

x

x

x

Dahshour Case study, Baharia Mugarib Visitor’s center

13

x

x

x

x

-Awareness Raising; Heritage and Education through Case Studies, visitor center- Serabit el Khadem Sinai Project, Wikalet el Rab, Moez street.

14

x

x

x

x

Final Exam

15